千亿体育

千亿体育

钢材生产技术:什么是热冲压工艺? 冲压硬化?

摘要

tongguorechongya(yechengweichongyayinghua)laishengchanjuyousuoxuxingnengdegaoqiangduganggoujianxuyaoshenrulejiehekongzhichengxingguocheng。congergenjubutongdegongyicanshujiqijiaohuzuoyong,shizuizhonglingjiandexingnengbiandekeyucehekediaozheng。chulechangguidelengchengxingcanshuzhiwai,reheweiguanjiegoudengcanshushiderechongyaguochengdejixiexingnengbiandegengjiafuza。zheixiecanshushijieshiwulixianxiangbibukeshaode。

千亿体育zaizheipianwenzhangzhong,duirechongyazhongdere,jixie,weiguanjiegouhejishulingyudezuixinzhuangkuangjinxinglezongshu。yanjiusuoyougongxuhou,congbanchengpinjiaredaorechongyakonggegeguochengdoujinxinglemiaoshu。duixianyouyanjiujieguojinxingdiaochaxianshi,zaizhenggeguochengzhongdechengxingxiangzhuanbian,lianxuliubianxingwei,douhejixiexingnengyijijihexingzhuangxiangguan。xingchengdeyixiechaju,zhuyaohexiangbian,lianxuliudongxingweidelingyu,jixiehejihexingzhuangzhijiandebufenxingzhidexiangguan。zheixiehexianjingongyidegongyeyingyongdouyouyixiechaju。gailunshudemudeshitigongyigechengxingguochengbeijing,bingzhanshirechongyalingyudejudaqianli。


1.引言

鉴于汽车的轻量化,安全化和抗冲击性能,对于高强度汽车机构钢板的需求日益明显。瑞典公司热冲压专利及其发展(1977年专利),被用于一些刀具刃上。1984年Saab汽车公司是第一家采用硬化硼钢板制作了Saab9000的汽车制造商。生产的零部件从1987年的的300万件/年到1977年的800万件/年。自从2000年起,更多的热冲压零部件被用于汽车上,并且年生产量在2007年已达到1亿多件。热冲压件在汽车工业的应用比如说汽车底盘,像A柱,B柱,保险杠,车顶纵梁和管道,如图1。

目前热冲压存在两种途径:直接和间接热冲压方法。在直接热冲压中,半成品被加热,再转移到冲压,随后在闭式模具内成型和淬火。见图2a。


jianjierechongyadetezhengshishiyongyigejiejinwanzhengdeyuchengxingdelengmo,zheijinyongyucuihuoheaoshitihuahouchongyadebiaozhunshiyong。jiantu2b。cailiaozhongwanquanmashitizhuanbianyinqiyingliqiangdudadao1500mpa。

benwenhuigulerechongyadehenduoyanjiu。zheijiangcongmiaoshuyongyurechongyadegongjiancailiaokaishi。ranhou,miaoshurechongyaguochengzhongdezhongdian。zuihou,zhanshilerechongyahoulingbujiandeyixiegongyiyijicai、xiugaitexing。benwenbujinbaokuoledaliangdeshiyanhaibaokuolerechongyalingyudexuduoyanjiu。


2.材料与涂层

千亿体育naderiduiyuchaogaoqiangdugangdeyanjiuxianshi,shiyongshuilengzhuangzhijinxingrechongyazhihou,zhiyou22mnb5,27mncrb5,37mnb4zheiyangdepenghejingang(biao1)shiweiyinengdedaowanquanmashitizuzhidegangzhong(naderi, 2007)。


千亿体育zaizheili,22mnb5shizuichangyongyurechongyadegangji。zuichu,gaicailiaozhanshilenengdadao600mpadetiesuti-zhuguangtizuzhi。jingguorechongyagongxuhou,lingbujianhuodemashitizuzhi,bingqieqiqiangdudaodao1500mpa(jiantu3a)。weilehuodezheiyangdezuzhiheyingdudezhuanbian,piliaojiangbeizai950℃chixuaoshitihuazhishao5min。ranhoupiliaozaichengxingdetongshitongguoshuilengmojucuihuo5~10s。youyuredegongjianyulengdemojujiechu,redegongjianzaifengbidemojuneibeicuihuo。ruguolengquesulvchaoguozuixiaodelengquesulv,dayuewei27k/s,wendudayuezai400℃zuoyou,jiujiangdaozhifeikuosanmashitizuzhidezhuanbian,zheijiangzuizhongchanshenggaoqiangdudebujian(tu3b)(merklein etal., 2008)。mashitizhuanbianwenduwei425℃(mashitikaishizhuanbiandianweims),bingqiezai280℃jieshu(mashitizhuanbianjieshudianweimf)。


zaicuihuohougangdejixiexingnengbianhuajiangqujueyutanhanlianghezuizhonghuodedeqiangdu,gaiqiangdukeyitongguoshidangdiaozhengtanhanlianglaikongzhi。womenzhidaomnhecrdenghejinyuansuduicuihuohouqiangdudeyingxiangjiaoxiao。danshi,zicongfaxianzheixieyuansuduicuitouxingyouyingxiangzhihou,tamenzaigailingyubiandebibukeshao。yinci,shejidexiangzhuanbianhecuitouxingkeyitongguokexingdelengquesulvkaihuode。pengshiduicuitouxingyingxiangzuidadeyuansu,jianyupengyanhuanlexiangruanzuzhizhuanbianhedaozhimashitizuzhidechansheng。

千亿体育zaiaoshitihuatiaojianxia,zaigangyukongqijiechushihenkuaijiuxingchengyanghuamo。weilebimianbiaomianyanghuahetuotan,daliangdejinshubanhuitufushangyicengbaohuceng。zaizhijierechongyazhongyingyongzuiweiguangfandeshial-situceng。borsettodengyanjiulerexuecanshuduial-situcengjixiexingnengdeyingxiang。zheixiehejinducengtongchangshichixurejindiandugongyi,rongyewei10%sihe3%fehe87%al。zaiduihanyoutufucengdegongjianrechulideguochengzhong,fekuosancongbiaoceng-jitijiemiandaobiaocengshigerejihuoguocheng。al-situcengderongdianjiejin600℃。raner,youyujitizhongcunzaife,al-fehejinyouzhegenggaoderongdianzaijiemianshengzhangbinghenkuaidadaobiaomian。al-fehejinqianyidaobiaomian,tamenyougaoderongdianfangzhilebiaocengbeiyanghua。duiyuyigedianxing950℃rechongyaguocheng,cicengzuzhiweijiaotibianhuadeal-fehanliang。zaizhijierechongyaguochengzhong,zheigebaohucengzuzhileyanghuacengdedechansheng。xiangbiyuzaishiwenxiadechushizhuangtaijichucailiao,youyual - sicengjiaodixingchengdexianzhi,rejindulvbanbunengyongyujianjierechongyaguochengzhong,tamenbushihelengchengxing。zheizhongtucengbutigongyinjibaohu,ruxin,danyougaodezhalanbaohu。leisidelengchengxingjian,yinjibaohushishiyongyurechongyalingjiande。qichexingyezhongdezheixieyaoqiukenengtongguoyinjibaohudedaomanzu,ruxin。zaijiareherechongyaguochengzhong,rejinduxindexincengjiticailiaoyuxingchengjinshujianhuawuxin-tiexiangfashengfanying。weilejinliangjianshaotucengzhongdeliewenkuozhandaojichucailiao,rejinduxin22mnb5zhinengzaijianjierechongyazhongshiyong。zairechongyahou,yanghuacengbixujingguopenwanyichu,yibimianbuliangdetuliaofuzhe。lingyizhong22mnb5debaohutucengshix-tex。zheixiangdangyujizhijiehejianjiederechongyafujiayicengfangfuceng。genjusol–gelgongxutucengyiμmdeyanghuacailiaodejieheweijichu。youjihewujicailiaohunheallizilaixingchengbaohuceng。zheizhong7μmdehoubaohucengzailengchengxingguochengzhongshidecailiaozaibujiarunhuashihouhainengliudong。

zuixindefangzhiyanghuacengchanshengdefangfashicaiyongfanghuyou,zhengrumoriand ito (2009)zhongsuomiaoshudeyiyang。dianluzhongjiaredegangbanyanghuanengdedaozuai,bingqieyanjiuleliangzhongbutongdefanghuyou。yanghuafanghuyouzaichengxingherewanqushiyanzhiwaidelengqueshiyanzhongjinxingleyanjiu。gangbandebiaomianfenxixianshirunhua(sici)keyijianshaobiaomianyanghua。


3.加热

热冲压过程是从加热到奥氏体化温度的钢板开始的。为了了解该过程,在热冲压过程中设置观察窗口,热处理工艺参考Lechler and Merklein (2008)的奥氏体温度和时间。在这些测试中,试样在两端都是40MPa的压力下淬火。为了评价相转变以及淬火硬度,在维氏硬度计HV10上进行硬度测试。最短的奥氏体化时间在不同的奥氏体化温度和不同厚度的钢板下火的最大的硬度为470HV,如图4所示。



yanjiujieguoxianshikecuihuode22mnb5,qitongdengdeaoshitihuachengduzuiduanrechulishijiandeguanjianyinsushiaoshitihuawendutu4ahegangbanhoudutu4b,。yanjiufaxian,zailuwenwei950℃xiachixu3minyouliyuhuodezuidamashitihanliang,yeshizuidayingduyuewei470hv。suizheluwendexiajiang,aoshitihuachixushijianzengjia。zairechulishisuizhequedingrechongyalingbujianzugoujingquedehanjiexingneng(stopp et al.,2007),al–situcengdeshangxianshijianqujueyusanyuanhejinal–si–fecengdehoudu(austerhoff and rostek, 2002)。genjushiyan(stopp etal., 2007),zailuzhongbuchaoguoaoshitihuashifucenghoududayuewei40um。

lechler (2009)deyanjiuzhongliechulegangbanrechuligongyiduilingbujianxingneng,chulishijian,rechongyachengbenxiaolvyouzheshenyuandeyingxiang。yinci,junyundepiliaowenduhejiaoduandejiareshijianshijiarexitongdezhuyaoyaoqiu。gangbankeyitongguobutongdejiarexitong:jiarelu,dianciganying,herechuandao(tu5)。



3.1辊底式炉

千亿体育zaixiancundexingliezhong,maopitongchangzaigundiluhuobujinluzhongjiare。zheixieludedaxiaoheguanlianfuzaiqujueyuwuliaotongguolianghebeijiaredecailiao。zaiteshudejiarequxianxiacainengshial–sibiaocengcailiaofangzhiyanghuapixingcheng。zheishiyinweibixuzaijiticailiaohebiaocengzhongchanshengkuosan(suehiro et al., 2003)。

xianyouderechongyaxianzhongrongludezhangduyida30-40mizhang。gaodekongjianxuqiuherizengdeyanjiufeiyongshidejiaremaopidefangfaliqiuzhuanbian。

冲压硬度零件的循环时间取决于合模时间和奥氏体化所需滞留在炉里的时间,在涂层的情况下,还需达到所需要的完全合金化。谈到合模时间,模具的冷却的可选择性为减少循环时间提供了可能。减少滞留在炉内的时间可以仅通过随后彻底的加热概念获得(Lenzeet al., 2008a,b)。这些方法尚处于开发阶段,实验室研究必须对其进行验证以用于工业应用。


3.2 传导加热

千亿体育chuandaojiareshiyigekeyitihuandejiarexitong。duiyujiaregongxu,maopijiazailianggedianjipianzhijian(mori et al., 2009)。dianliujingguojinshuban。cailiaodekangzuyinqibandefare。cailiaoredaolvdeshizhijiyujouledinglv,jidianluxunhuanzhongredechanshengyudianliuxunhuanqiangduyouguan。dianliusunshidebufenshiyinweidianzuzishenfare。zaiyuanjiandebiaomianyoudidebiaomianzhilianghejueyuancengkeyizengjiazukang,bingyincinengzaijiechuquyuchanshengre。zheizhongjiechudeshejiyijijiechuyalidekongzhiduiyutongdengjiaredewuzhifeichangzhongyao(kolleck et al.,2008)。

xiaonengshishiyongchuandaojiaredeyigefeichangzhongyaoyinsu。zheigeyinsuzhijiequjueyubujiandezukang。yinweizhangdebujianbiduandebujianyougenggaodezukang,chuandaojiarezhuyaoyongyujuyoulianghaozhangjingbidebujian,biruguancai,bangcai,xiancai,hedaicai(kolleck et al., 2008)。zheizhongjiarefangfadelieshishiyanzhecailiaodezhangdufangxianghuiyoubujunyundewendu。gongyeyingyongdelingyigewentishizheizhongjiarefangfahennanjifuzaxingzhuangdemaopijiare(behrens et al., 2008)。


3.3 感应加热

zuihoujieshaodejiarexitongshiganyingjiare。yuanzeshang,suoyoudedaotihuobandaotidoukeyizuoweiganyingjiareti,yincigailingyudeyingyongfanweihenguang:jinshuronglian,kuaizhuang,huihuohezuzhuangbaozhuanggongye。ganyingqidejihexingzhuangjuedinglecichangquyudeweizhi,zheiyejuedinggongzuodexiaolv。ganyingqihegongjiandejuliyeyingxiangjiarexitongdexiaolv。yifangmian,ganyingqihegongjianzhijiandejueyuanyaozuohao。lingyifangmian,zaijiaredeshihougongjiandexingzhuanghuibianhua。ganyingqiyixiaoduanjulidewuchajiangdaozhijiarexitongdesunhuai(kolleck et al., 2009a,b)。xiangduigundishijiarelu,ganyingjiaredexiaolvshiqideliangbei,yinweigundishijiareluzhongdaliangdereliangjiangconggunzhouheqitizhongsanfazou。

‍‍

4.成型

为了避免在成形前工件的冷却,工件必须尽快在炉中冲压成型。而且,成型必须在马氏体相变之前完成。所有,迅速的闭模盒和成型工序是热冲压成功的关键。在成形之后,工件在封闭模内淬火,冷却系统是通过导管内的冷却水来将热量带走。为了避免在成形过程中,冲模和工件加剧之间部分的淬火,通常在热冲压系统中留一段空的距离(见图6)。


rechongyazhonglingyigegongyicanshushigongzuojiezhidefangfa。wenduzuoweirechengxinggongyizhongdeyigecanshu,qizaicuihuodeshishidegaichuangxinjishuchengweikeneng(neugebauer et al., 2009)。chengxingbuzhoushicongdiaozhengcemianhuokongbaimojuchukaishide。zaimojubihehou,chengxingbuzhoushizaigongzuojiezhizhongwancheng(jiantu7)。



Neugebauer et al. (2009)和 Lindkvist et al. (2009)的研究中,氮气和空气分别加压到600bar作为工作介质。相对于普通的热冲压,热气成形的优势是在成型过程开始时就可以自由成型零件。另外,由于在成形期间零件与工具之间的接触时间较短,因此均匀的坯料温度分布会导致坯料的均匀成形。另外,热气成形中另一个令人感兴趣的领域是隔热或不可压缩工作介质的应用。

千亿体育qiangdeqiliukeyishirechongyaguochengzhongdexiaolvtigao,yinweizheiyouliyusuoduangongxudeshijian。tigaoredaolvkeyijiasulengque(casaset al., 2008)heshilengquexitonggengweiyouxiao。jiangredaolvtigaodao66w/mk,keyijiangbaoyachixushijiancong10sjianshaodao8s。


4.1 冷却管

rechongyacaozuozhongdecuihuobujinyingxiangjingjichengbenhaiyingxianggongjiandexingneng。lengqueguandeshejimubiaoshiyouxiaodejigongjiancuihuohezaimashitixingchengshizhishaodadao27k/sdelengquesulv。ruguoliudongzailengqueguanlidelengqueyeshishui,neimelengquexitonghuibiandegengjiajingji。gongjianshangdereliangyikaorechuandaocongmojusanfa,yincimojuderedaolvshidereliangyouyoulengqueguandaizou。conggongjiandaomojuzuishiyiderejiaohuanshi,jiechubiaomianbucunzaiyanghuapihuoliefeng。mojuderedaolvshixuanzemojucailiaodeguanjian。lingyigeguanjianyinsushiweirepaichuershejidelengqueguan,bixuxiandingtadechicun,weizhihefenbu。shiyongjiaodiwendudelengqueguanzengjialemojuhelengqueguanzhijiandewencha,jiasulerepaichudesudu,congerdaozhireliangliudong。

keyizaichengxingmojushangzuanchulengquekong。shiyongzheizhongfangfa,zaishejikongweizhishihoudekaolvjixiejiagongdexianzhi。yinci,jinkaolvzuijiarezhuanhuandelengquexitongshinanyizuodaode。lingyizhongfangfashi,zaijiaozhushiliuhaokongzuoweilengqueguan(kuhn and kolleck, 2006)。zheizhongfangfadeyoushishilengquexitongbushouxianzhi。huanjuhuashuo,mojukeyishiyongjiguangfenduan,ranhoutongguoluoshuanjiaguchengwanzhengdelengquekongdong(freieck, 2007)。gaifangfahenhuasuan,danshifencengshejiduiyubujiandebiaomianhemojuderezhuanhuandoubuli。


4.2 模具的表面磨损

zaidessain etal. (2008)zhongmiaoshuleceshimojumosundefangfa,wenzhongshiyongyugaowenceshidemodaizhuangzhi。gaishebeicaiyongdianzujiare,zai22mnb5bangshangtufual–siceng。jiaredaiyiyidingzhijinghuaxing。ceshizhong,jiechubiaomianweimosunhezhanzhequyu。zhuyaoshimojudemosun,erzaikongbaiquyuguanchadaoal–sicengdezhanzhe。zheixiezuhecengzaiceshidezaoqijieduanxingcheng,bingzaimojubiaomianchuxianyashicengcongerhuodejiaodidemosunchengdu。

千亿体育zairechongyaguochengzhongmojubaoluzaigaowenxia,jiangshimocaguochengzhongchuxiandadebianhuadaozhibiaomianxingmaobuyi,yichuyanghuapi,chuxianguodumosun。shiyongshidangdebiaomianchulihuozaibiaomiantucengshikefubiaomianmocadeyizhongfangfa。hardell and prakash (2008)dengrenzaishiwenhe400℃xiayanjiuledenglizichulimojuheliangzhongpvdtuceng(crn he tialn)。jielunshitialntucengnenghuodezuihaodekangmosunnengli。

lingyizhongtucengzebucunzai。zaishenrudeyanjiuguochengzhong,aoshitihuawenduhebiaomianzuzhideyingxiangshibixukaolvde。


5.淬火

zaiaoshitihuawenduquyuchengxinghou,lingbujianzaifengbidemojuneicuihuozhidaowanquanmashitizuzhi。22mnb5yaohuodewanquanmashitizuzhixuyaodelengquesuduxuyaochaoguo27k/s。mashitizhuanbiandaozhiliubianyinglidezengjia(tu8)。



从奥氏体的(fcc)向马氏体的(bct)转变会引起体积的增加,从而影响淬火时候的应力分布。只有在完全转变行为下,才能预测最终得到的材料性能,各相的体积分数,残余应力,和冷却后工件的形变(Neubauer et al., 2008)。

千亿体育duiyuyouresuxingzhuanbianxingweidemojucailiao,yingbiandezengjiaketongguodanxing,suxing,re,gexiangtongxingzhuanbianheyoufayinglizhuanbiandezonghexiaoyinglaimiaoshu(biao2)。


由于奥氏体和铁素体,珠光体,贝氏体和马氏体的点阵结构不同,相变过程中发生的体积变化可以通过各向同性应力来描述。结果只导致体积的变化,像增加的热应力。另外,这些组织的形态各异,随后的机械性能也不一样。因此,由于不断有新相产生以及变形历史必须考虑进去,这样使得研究材料的宏观行为变为一个难题。

ruguoxiangbianzaiwuwaijiayinglixiachansheng,neimecailiaozhizaimucaihechanpindeyashiguochengzhongguanchadaochundetijihetijidezengjia。dangzaiwailixiachanshengzhuanbianshi,zhuanxingyinqidesuxingbianxingshibukenide。greenwood–johnsonjizhi(greenwood and johnson, 1965)miaoshulezhuanbiansuxingyikaoaoshitihejieguoxiangdetijifenshu。yinci,dangshijiapianyinglishiaoshitizhongchanshengsuxingyingliranhouyoufaweiguanyingli。zuichangyongdekaolvsuxingzhuanbiandemoxingshiyouleblonddengrentichude,jinyibudeyingyongshiåkerströmdengrentichudeshuzhimoni。

zaibutongdechengxingmoxingzhong,yongfenxiliubianxingweimoxingshiyongchixulengquezhuanbiantu(cctquxian)。weilequedingfcctquxianjixingchengcctquxian,jiaredeshiyangzhidaodadaochengchengxingtiaojianhesuihouzaiyudingdelengquesulvxiachengxing。bingceshichengxingdechengdu。


6.FE模拟

热冲压成形是一个预定相转变的热机械成形工艺。取决于历史温度,机械变形,不同相和混合相的交互作用。热释放时固态相转变的过程会影响热场。此外,随着微观成分的不同,机械性能和热性能都会根据温度和变形的不同而变化。因此,一个可行的的有限元仿真模拟必须考虑机械,热,和微观组织的交互作用(见图9)。这需要过程特性,例如热转变系数,材料的流变行为,和相关条件下的相转变。由于在过程模拟中传递了微观结构演变数据,因此可以对最终属性(例如硬度和拉伸强度)进行适当模拟。


对于金属的耦合热机械变形一致的分析,Ghosh和Kikuchi(1988)开发了有限元方法,模拟了在高温下的金属流动行为。该模型认为,最初的各向异性和金属的温度特性取决于金属大的形变形成过程。

jinnianlai,liangzhongyouxianyuanfenxizhongcunzaijizhongouheguannian,bingyincikaifaletamenzijidexiangguanlingyulaiyanjiurechongyachengxing。zaiouhexitongkaolvlerehejixiemoshi,douyushixianjihehewulishujuxiangguanlian。youyurehejixiefenkaidandujisuan,ouhedegainianzaiyouxianyuanmoxingzhongnengyouxiaohelinghuodediaozhengcanshu。zheizhongfangfadequedianshiliangzhongyouxianyuanmoxingzhijiandeshujuchuanshuhuishoudaoxianzhi,tahuiyingxiangdemonijieguodezhunquexing(hein,2005nian; tekkay,2007。)。lingyizhongweirechongyayouxianyuanmonifangfashiteshuyongtudeyingyongchengxu:ls - dynade,zidongbiaoge,hepamstamp。zaixianyoudexuanxiangzhongbutongdeyouxianyuanmoxingdedingyihemiaoshuwuliguocheng。liru,yongyouxianyuanruanjianls - dynadefenxikeyicaiyongrewaiqiao,fujiajixiewaiqiaojinshuyuansu。yinshishijianjifenjiejueleredewenti,erxianshishijianjifenfangfachulilejixieguzhang。ls - dynadegongnengshi,yunxujiehemeigejifenfazedeyoushi,bingzaitongyishijian,kefujiechurongyewendingxinghereshoulian。zheixiegongjukeyiweidaiyourexingweidegangtijianmo(karbasianet al., 2008a,b)。

千亿体育zaikongbaimokuaishangdewendufenbudeyucebingqiegongjuzaizheigeguochengzhongqizhefeichangzhongyaodezuoyong。suiwenduerbiandeyinghuahanshudetedian,haixuyaokaolvdaosuxingbianxinghegongjuyukongbaimokuaizhijianyouyuduiliuherefusheersunshidere。congaoshitixiangmashitidexiangbianyebixukaolv,yimonirechengxingguocheng(åkerströmdeng。,2007)。zaixiamian,miaoshulerejixiexingnengherechongyadeyouxianyuanmoni。


6.1 热力参数

有限元模拟方法对热冲压件的力学性能的预测,需要对形成和淬火中的热现象建立精确的模型。传热系数h影响整个成形过程中的冷却和热行为。‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍并且受接触压力和钢板的温度以及表面状况的影响(规模厚度,表面粗糙度,涂层厚度等)(Forstner等,2007)。作为基础材料22MnB5的力学性能强烈依赖于温度,这是最重要的参数之一,是有限元建模热辅助成形必须考虑的因素。

为了测定传热系数,Hoff‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍千亿体育(2007年)开发了一个淬火的工具。被加热的工件在设定了接触压力的两块水冷板中淬火。在测试过程中,记录空白和两个接触板的温度。在测量参数的基础上,根据牛顿冷却定律分析传热系数:

T(t) = (T0 - T)e(-h(A/CpV)t) + T

A:接触面积,Cp:热容量,h:热转换系数,V:体积,t:‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍时间,T0:初始温度,T:环境温度,ρ:密度

千亿体育rezhuanhuaxishuhzuoweijiechuyalizengjiadehanshu,xianshileduigongjianyumojuzhijianderejiaohuanzaihezhongdayingxiangli(tu10)。zengjiajiechuyalidaozhilechuanrezengjia。zheizhongxiaoguoshitongguozengjialianggejiechubujiandeyouxiaojiechumian,zengjiarunhuahuozhetianjiaal–situceng。yinci,yuelaiyueduodejinshu-jinshujiechuquyuchanshengzhijierechuandaozuoyong,tongguotalianggejiechuwutizhijianderenengnenggoudedaozhuanhuan(karbasiandeng,2008a,b)。



6.2 塑变行为

千亿体育weiquedingyugongyixiangguantiaojianxiacailiaoderejixiexingneng,shiyongmerkleinhelechler(2006)derechuandaolashenshiyandui22mnb5gangdeliudongxingweijinxinglebiaozheng(tu11)。 


zheixiangyanjiuxianshi,bujinyingbian,erqiewenduyingbiansulvheshengwensulvdouduizaigaowenaoshitizhuangtaixiade22mnb5deliudongxingyoujudayingxiang。

千亿体育redaolvlashenshiyanzhong,chulewenduheyingbiansulvduirejixiexingnengyouzhongdadeyingxiangwai,haikejiancedaowenduduisuxinggexiangyixingdeyilaixing(merkleinhelechler,2008)。zaiyue800~850℃shi,jinshubobanbiaoxianchujihugexiangtongxingdesuxingxingwei。youyuaoshitihua,duigexiangyixingdeyingxiangkeyihulve(merkleinhelechler,2008)。


6.3 材料模型

duiyurejixiejiagonggongyi,yijingtichulegezhongbanjingyanyijijiyuwulideliudongyinglimoxing。biao3zhongdexianyoumoxinglaizizuijindechubanwu,xianshi22mnb5youlianghaodeliudongxingneng,yuhochholdingerdengren(2009nian)hedurrenberger(2009nian)deshiyanshujuxiangfu。liubianyinglidecedingshiyanshuju,tongguoduncuceshihuode,tashizaiyigegaosupengzhangbianxingjizhongjinxing(hochholdingerdeng,2009)。biao3zhongmouxiecailiaomoxingdecanshugusuanweizaiyinyongdecankaowenxianzhonggongbu。danxiangjohnson–cookhenorton–hoffzheiyangdeqitacailiaoshujuyekeyizaiåkerström(2006)helechler(2009)neilizhaodao。



hochholdingerdeng(2009nian)biaoming,yongwahlenmoxingkeyidedaozuijianihedeshiyanshuju。tu 12anuodun-huofuhenematnasaiermoxingxianshizaiyouxiaosuxingzhigenggaoshiyingbianliudongyinglizengjiaershixiao。



千亿体育zaijiaodadeyingbianxiadeliubianyinglizhishidurrenbergerdengyuehanxunkukemoxingdezhuyaoquedian(2008,2009)(tu12b)。voce- kocksguanxideyucejieguoyushiyanshujuxiangwenhe,gaimoxingyucezaiyingbianyuewei0.06xialiubianyinglidadaobaohe,ershiyanzhongrengkeyiguanchadaoqingweideyingbianyinghua。gaimolinari- ravichandranmoxingyounenglizhongxianlishidexiaoguo,rujiasuyingbiansulvhewendubianhua,zheixiedouyouneibucanshudeyanhuaguilverde。raner,duiyucailiao22mnb5deyanjiufenxizhong,molinari - ravichandranmoxingyucesuxingyingbiandayu0.10zhihou,liubianyinglizaoyibaohe。suxingyingbianwei0.05shi, ghostmoxingdeyuceyu22mnb5shiyanshujufeichangwenhe。

moxingdeliudongtexing,qizhongbaokuobingjieshaolexiangbiandaozuihoudemashitilianxuyanhuaguocheng,youåkerströmdengren(2007nian)kaifadeyouxianyuanmoni。tamenchuangjiandemoxingzaikaolvshijixiangjiegou,qianre,tijibianhuahexiangbianguochengzhongdexiangbiansuxingdejichushangde(åkerströmdeng,2005)miaoshulecailiaoderejixiexingzhi。zaicailiaomoxingyushiyanshujudeduibibiaoming,zaiaoshitidetiaojian22mnb5liudongxingweidexianshimoxingshikenengde。


6.4 成形极限曲线

touguochuantongdechengxingjixianquxianflcdefangfalaihuodegaicailiaodechengxingxing。zheitiaoquxianxianshilebutongyinglizhuangtaixiajingsuoheduanliedebianxingbiaoduibancaiyangpinbutongdechunjianyingli。raner,zaigaowenxiachengxingshi,cailiaochengxingxingbujinshoudaochongjidanyeshouwendu,yingbiansulvhebianxingguochengzhongzuzhiyanbiandeyingxiang(peilaigelinideng,2009)。

weicijinxingdejicishiyan,danmarciniakhenakajimaceshishishiyongzuipubiandeyige。zaizheilianggeceshizhong,bancaichuyuyawenaoshitixiangbingjinglilerejixiechuli,tamenzaibutongdewendu,suihoushigezhongyingbianheyingbiansulvxiaceshizhidaosuojingheduanlieshixiao(barianideng,2008nian)。zheixieceshizhijiandezhuyaoqubieshichongyaxingzhuang,zheibushibanqiuxinghuobianpingxing((dahandeng,2007)。

千亿体育zaigaowenxia,cailiao22mnb5chengxingjixianquxianzainakajimaceshizhongcede。zaizheili,weiquedingdewenduxiangguandechengxingjixianquxian,duichuantongdeceshishebeijinxinglexiugai。yinci,teshujiareqibixuanzhuangzaichongmoshang、mojushang、yabianshanglaikongzhiwendu。

千亿体育pellegrinideng(2009nian)biaoming,xiangduiyuchushitiesuti-zhuguangtizuzhi,aoshitidehuayixishuzhiyuegaohereganyingyuegao。yinciyinqizairechongyashijixiexingnengdeyanbian(tu13)sanshejieguobuyiyangdezhuyaoyuanyinshiyouyugaowenxiajinxingdeceshichengxubutong。lechler(2009nian)shejidejiarefangfa,quebaolezailuneijiarejieduanwendujunyunfenbu,danshizheiyiweizhelengqueguochengzhongyinshoudongzhuanyiershidewendugengnanyikongzhi。peilaigelinidengren(2009nian)deganyingjiaredaozhidewendujunyunfenbushaoweijiaocha,dannenghuodeyouyigelianghaodelengquekongzhi。


千亿体育leisipeilaigelinidengren(2009nian)helaikele(2009nian),chasteldeng(2008nian)biaoming,wenduyuegao,chushimaopihuobancaihouduyueda,linjiepingmianyingbianyueda。

zaixianyoudeyanjiuzhong,jiarehelengquedekongbaiguochengshitongguobutongdefangfawancheng。yifangmian,zailaikele(2009nian)deyanjiu,jiarefangshishangzailuzhongjiarejieduanquebaowendujunyundefenbu。raner,zheiyiweizhezailengqueguochengzhongyinshougongzhuanyidaochongyashidewendugengnanyikongzhi。lingyifangmian,youbarianideng(2008nian)deganyingjiare,daozhidewendufenbujunyunjiaocha,dankonglengzuodegenghao,baozhenglefeichanggaodelengquesudu。yinci,zaizhenshidedengwentiaojianxiagaodelengquesulvjiunanyiquebaobimianxiangbiandezhuanbianle。pingjiagaowenxiajinshubobanchengxingxingnengwentidoukeyitongguolingyizhongfangfalaiwancheng,jiyuyigeshidangdeshixiaozhunze,jizhaodaoyizhongyingbian,yingbianlv,wenduheweiguanjiegoudeyanbiandehanshu(peilaigelinideng,2009)。


6.5 摩擦系数

千亿体育zairechongyazhongtucengcailiaodemocatexing,keyongbutongdeceshifangfa(tu14)laipinggu。zaibutongdeceshifangfashigongjianhegongjujiechubuyiyang,zheiduimocaxishudequedingfeichangzhongyao,bixushileisiyurechongyadejiechutiaojian。


stöhr deng(2008)caiyongshiyan-fenxi-shuzhijisuanfangfa,laiquedingxiangguantiaojianxiademocaxishu。zaizheili,beizhuangshenchongshiyan(tu14a),rechongyaguochengzhongdeshijian-wenduquxianshishiyandejichu。weilejieshishiyanguochengyukeguanshijizhongrechuandaosulvdebutong,gongjudewendushibianhuade。zaizheixianggongzuozhong,lvguituceng22mnb5shiyangdemocazhikeyiyongsiebeldefangfa(siebelhebeisswänger,1955nian)laijinxingjisuan。jieguo(tu15)xianshi,suizhewendudeshenggao,mocaxishucong0.6jiangdao0.3(stöhr et al.,2008)。


qiaopanceshi(tu14b)shiyoughiottideng(2009a,b)hehardellheprakash(2008),tantaojiemiancanshu(ruwendu,yalidehuadongsuduhebiaomiancucaodu)duizaijinshubanyumojukongbaishangdemocadeyingxiang。fenxibiaoming,wenduheyalidexianghuzuoyonggenmocaxishuguanxizuiweimiqie。zheiliangxiangyanjiubiaoming,gaijiechumiandemocaxishuzaizhengchangyalixiasuiwendushenggaoerjiangdi。gaiyuanyinkenengshiyoujinshujianhuawufe–al,zaiyalizengjiashishidemocaxishujiangdile(ghiottideng。2009a,b)。zaiqiaopanshiyanshihoukongbaimojuyugongjianjiechudetiaojian,shigenjinshuchengxingdetiaojianbuyiyangde。yinci,(tu15)zuizhongshuzhigaoda0.8,cifangfabushihecedingduiyingbiaomianjiechutiaojianxiadebancaichengxing。

千亿体育lingyigedemocacedingfangfashihuituceshi(tu14c),zheishiyoudessaindengren(2008nian)famingde。jiarehoudegongjiantongguozhidinggongjudetujiechumianjiyubutongfangxiangdeliliangjinxingtongbuceliang。mocaxishudejisuanfangfaconggenjupawelski(1964)huode。zaichixuyaqiangwei10mpahechixuaoshitihuashijianwei390sshihouduibishiyanzhongmocaxishudejieguo,jieguobiaomingbutongdewenduduimocaxingweiyingxianghenxiao(tu15)。tongyangdejieguozaiyaqiangwei250mpashihouyededaoyanzheng(dessain et al.,2008)。

zuihoujieshaodeyizhongceshimocaxishudefangfajiantu14d,yanagida and azushima (2009)dengrentichu。ceshideyiqiyoujiareluhehuatuzhuangzhizucheng。mocaxishuyouzhichenglihedanxinglijisuan。genqitadeceshifangfaduibi,jisuandesuizhewendushenggaoheyaqiangwei10mpamocaxishucong0.5shengdao0.6(tu15)。yaqiangzai7he14mpazhongbianhuaxianshimocaxishuyilaiyuxiangguandeyalifanwei((yanagida and azushima,2009).)

千亿体育al–situcengde22mnb5cailiaoshangdedaobutongdemocaxishu,biaomingjiechutiaojianduiyujisuandezhiyingxianghenda。zaizhenshiderechongyaguochengzhong,jiechutiaojianleisiyushenlashenleisiyutu14ahe14edetiaodailashenwanqu。tiaodaidelashenwanqubunengyongyuquedingmocaxishu。


7.最终性能

淬火过程中马氏体组织的演变使得抗拉强度达到1500MPa,这已在弹性测试和硬度测试中得到了验证。随后的微观组织分析,显示完全马氏体组织可以增加材料的机械性能。由于冷却速率和相转变结果,最终的机械性能取决于工序的控制。

千亿体育zaichixulengquegongxuzhong,lengquesulvheyingdushixiangguandecanshu。zaishijidecaozuozhong,erhardtandboke(2008)yongdelengquesulvyongyurechongyamonizhong,yiquedingyingduzhiheqitadejixiexingneng。jixiexingnengyilaiyurehechengxingdelishi。

zaibutongwenduheyingbiansulvxia22mnb5deliubianquxianxianshizheixiegongyicanshuqianglieyingxiangcailiaodeliubianxingwei。jinguanwenduheyingbiansulvzaibianhua,yanagimotoheoyamada(2007)yijikusumietdengren(2009)deyanjiuzhongrechongyashigaodexingbiannengshigongjiandedaozuixiaodehuidan。

千亿体育miaoshurechongyazhongderejixiexianxiang,bixufenxiqizhongdecanyuyingli。zaigengjinyibudeyanjiuzhong,fenxiyinglibufenjiukeyiyingguiyinyurejixiehexianweijiegouzaixiangguandecanshuzhongzhanzhudaodiwei。zheifangmiandezhishiyeduirechongyajianqiaoqubianxingdetexingmiqiexiangguan。


7.1腐蚀

千亿体育lengchengxingzhongyinjibaohutongyangshiyongyurechongya。zairechulihourejindulvdefe–alhejinxiangbiaomianshicucaobupingde,youyubiaomiangudingdejieguo,tufuxingnengzaimeiyouhuaxuechulideqingkuangxiayehenhao。zaimeiyoubiaomianchulidetiaojianxia,fe–alhejinxiangzhanshilebijitigenghaodekangfushinengli(suehiroetal.,2003)。al–situcengbingmeiyouxiangxinyiyangdeyinjibaohuxiaoying,dantaqueyougaodefanghudepingzhanggongneng。

daix-textucengdefushiceshi,zhengmingfushibingbushilaiyuanyujitigangershiyoutuihuoshitiekuosandaobiaocengyinqide(goedickeetal.,2008)。weilecedinghanjiexingnenghetufuxingneng,gaijishuzaipenwanyinghuahoujinxingyichu。

zn–fecengdechongkongfushixianshizn–fecengnengbichuantongdexintucengjubeigenghaodebaohuxingneng。zheishiyouyuzaibiaocenghuiyoushaogaodedianjibaohuhewendingdefushichanwu(faderletal.,2008)。tongyang,zn–fecengbichuantongdeduxinjubeigenghaodebolifangshi。hongsefushichanwushi(huangsechanwu)kenengdaozhizaibaohucengchuxiantie。jiaohuquyudefushishiyanghenqingxidebiaomianjitibingmeiyouzhangshijianshoudaoqinshi(faderletal.,2009)。

yanjiudianliudemubiaoshichixugaishantucenghetigaoxindehuozhexiufujiaorongyifushidejinshutuceng。zaizhijiehuojianjierechongyazhong,jieheal–situcenggaoderewendingxinghexintucengdeyinjibaohuxingneng。lingyigemudeshizairechongyashiyongxintucenglaiyufangjinglijiandepolie。


8.后续的加工处理

因为试样特殊的机械性能,热冲压件的后续加工需要进行分析和合适的观察窗。其中,切割,焊接是对于热冲压件最为重要的步骤。下面将描述它们的应用。


8.1 切割

leisiyuchuantongdejinshuchengxing,qiegehuozhezuankongshirechongyachengxinghoudeyigebuzhou,ruguoyoubiyao,haikejinxingpenwan。womenhuiguxiarechongyajianqiegedebutongfangfa。


8.1.1 激光切割

千亿体育yingweizairechongyahoucailiaojuyougaoduqiangdu,jiguangqiegeshirechongyajianzuiweichangyongdefangfa。youyushiwujiechudejiguangxiubian,xiangduiyuqitaqiegefangfa,tabuhuiyinqirenhegongjiandemosunhuozhezaiqiegebianyuandeshixiao。lingyigeyoushishi,shiyongjiguangqiegeduiyubujiandexingzhuangmeiyourenhexianzhi。huodedegongchashoujiguangqidegangduhejiajudeyingxiang。jiguangqiegedeshijianqujueyubujianjihexingzhuanghejiguangqiyidongsudu。(kolleck et al., 2009a,b)。


8.1.2 硬切割

千亿体育chongyayinghuahoudebujianyouyujuyougaoqiangdu,huidaozhiyixiekongbaimojudemosun,huozheyoushihouyixiemojutiqianshixiao。so dengren(2009)tichuyigekongbaimojugongxu,jianqiebiaomiandezhilianghechicunjingduzhuyaoshoumouxiegongxucanshu,zhuruchongyasudu,luoliaojiaodu,chongyamojianxi,jianqiemojubianyuanjihexingzhuanghecailiaodexingnengdeyingxiang。zaigaixiangyanjiuzhongfaxian,chongyasududuiyujianqiejihexingzhuangyijikongbaimojudeyalishimeiyouguanxide。duiyusuoyoudeluoliaojiaodu,suizhechongyamojujianxidezengjiafeibianzengjia。ciwai,shishixianshisuizhejianxizengjiaguangzeduyezengjia,zhidaochanshenglemaoci,danshimaocichanshenghousuizhejianxizengjiaerguangzeduxiajiang(so et al., 2009)。

picas dengren (2008)jinxinglelingyizhongyingqiegedeyanjiu,xianshichongyahougaodeyingdudaozhididejianqiebianyuandemosun,danshizheishidezaigaofuhexiadeyingyongbiandegengjiamingan,yinweikaolvdaoweiguanliewenhuiyanzhejianqiebianyuanchansheng。zaigaorenduchongyaxia,zaiqiegebianyuankangmosunnenglishaoweixiajiang,danshizheizaigaoyingduhekangpilaoxingnengfangmiandedaolebuchang。yinci,bixuzhaodaozuijiaderendu-yingdupeihelaitigaomojudejixiexingneng,tebieshichongyayinghuabujiandeqiegepicas et al. (2008)。


8.1.3 热切割

千亿体育rechongyajiankexuanzedeqiegefangguoxiaodefashizaigaowenxiacuihuoshihoujinxingqiege。reqiegedeyoushishijianshaoleqiegelihededaozuijiadeqiegebianyuan。

千亿体育zuixindegongxushixuanzelegongjianzaigaowencuihuoshihouqiege。zheibimianerlaimashitizuzhidechansheng,zaiqiegequyudelengquesulvbixujiangdi。rechongyazhongjububutongderechuliweihouxudeqiegezuohaolepudian,bingqiezheihaihecailiaobutongderedaolvyouguan(maikranz-valentindengren,2008)。

zuiweiyouxiaodeqiegefangfashizhiqianfazhandekongbaifa。zheizhongfangfaxuyaoyidingdemaopishejilaidadaosuoxubujiandewaixing(kolleck et al., 2009a,b).。rechongyahoudeqiegekehuodegengxiaodegongcha。


8.2 焊接

youyudidechengxingxing,chengxingfangfazhongdehanjiebunengbeiyingyongyurechongyabujian。yinci,rechongyajiandekehanjiexingnengzaixianshizhongshiyingyongdexianjuetiaojian。tufucengjiqihuaxuechengfenkenengyinqihanjieshihoudeshixiao。zaihouxuzhong,womenhuiguxia22mnb5zaibutongtucengxiadianzuhan,jiguangheqitijinshujidianhuhanfangmiandeyanjiu。

zaijiaredaobeiyachengxingqiandeshiduannei,gongjiandelvducenghuizhuanbianchengfe-alxianghejin,zheizhonghejinhanyougaodejinshurongdian,zheijiushidedianhanjiexingnengbushouzhiqiandetucengyingxiang(suehiroet al., 2003)

千亿体育diyidaideyanghuapidengbujuyoudianhanjiexingneng,yincizaihouxujiagongzhiqianbixuyongpenshachuliyichuyanghuapi。yuanyinshiyanghuapidedianzutaidaershihanjiedianliubunengchongfenliudong。dierhedisandaix-tecceshijishutongguotianjiameichengfenzuaileyanghuapidechansheng,jieguoxianshitucengshiyongyudianzuhan(goedicke et al., 2008).。dianzudianhan(rsw)dex-tectucengxianshiluneideqifenzaijiareshiduidianhanjiexingnengyouhendadeyingxiang。zaizheili,yangqidehanliangshiyingxiangzuidade。zaikongqizhongjiaredaozhiyanghuacengdexingcheng,congerdianhannanyishishi。danqifenweibaozhengzaitucengzhonghanjiaodiliangdeyanghuapi,yincinengshiyongyudianhan(braun and fritzsche,2009)。

千亿体育zn-fetuceng,zuihaodedianzudianhandaozhishuangmaichongjishuhezhiliudianyuandejiehe。lingwaiyixiehanjiedefangfayeshikexingde,birusghanjie,sgqianhan,jiguanghanheluoshuanhanjie(faderl et al., 2009)。

千亿体育duiyujiguanghanheqitijinshudianhuhan,qijietouchudejiaochaquyudeceshixianshix-tectucengduiyuhanjiexingnengmeiyouyingxiang。zaizhongdiehemeizhongdiedejietouchudoumeiyoufaxianqikonghuozheqitadequexian。zheizhongtucengkeyishunlideshiyong,yekeyijiehebutongdediceng,biruh430lalaihanjiehanfeng(braun and fritzsche, 2009)。weilebimianalhesijinrudaohanfengzhong,dangshiyongrejindulvshi,tucengbixuyanzhehanfengyichu2mm。


9.有焊接性能的热冲压件

热冲压件的完全马氏体组织导致抗拉强度高达1500MPa,并且延伸率低到5%。但是为了提高车辆的结构零部件(比如B-柱)的抗破裂能力,可以通过增加延伸率来提高吸收能量的能力。B-柱见图16,在交高区域有良好的侵人控制而在较低区域有很好的能量吸收能力。


xuyaocaizhixingnengdedanduquyukeyiyongbutongdegongxulaikongzhihuoshiyonghanjiepingbanjiantu17。


千亿体育huanjuhuashuo,regongxuhuishoudaolengquesulvdeyingxiang,lengquesulvdiyu27k/sshikeyibimianwanquanmashitizuzhi,huozhejiangdihuihuowenduzhiac3wenyixia,zheidounengdaozhibuwanquandeaoshitizuzhi。liangzhongfangfadouhanyoujiaodideqiangdueryincihuodegaodeyanzhanxing。qitaquyuantongchangdechongyayinghuashijian-wendutulaicuihuo(stohr et al., 2009)。


9.1 模具的温度

jianxiaocuihuosulvkeyitongguozengjiamojudewendulaihuode,zheiyekeyitongguopingbanhemojubiaomianzhijianderechuandaolaishixian。mojujuyoubutongdelengrequyu,zheiyejiangdaozhiyixiequyuyoujiaogaodeqiangdu(mashitizuzhi)erqitaquyuyougaodeyanzhanxing(hunhexiang)。lenze dengren. (2008a,b)deshiyanheshuzhimonixianshi,kenengyouyixiequyuyouhengaodeqiangdu,erqitaquyujuyouyanzhanxingbingqieyouxishounengliangdenengli。mojuwendudexuanzeyingxiangzhecuihuoshidelengquesulvhecailiaodezuizhongxiangzucheng。yinci,cailiaodexingnengbixuxuanzenengshiyongyugezhongbutongwendudemoju(tu18)。


9.2 模具材料

千亿体育tongguoshiyongbutongredaolvdemojucailiao,keyishidemojuxitongzaibutongdequyujinxingdeyouqubiederechuli。mokuaimojuxitongyoubutongredaolvcailiaodemokuaiyicizucheng,redaolvcong7w/mkdao66w/mk。yongzheizhongfangfa,keyikongzhihaorezhuanhuanyanzhemokuaibiaomiansanfa。yinweixitongzhongbutongderebianjietiaojian,shunxuhuamokuaitongguoqiaodahuoderewendingzhuangtai。zheizhongrexianxiangjiqizuoyongyoudaijinyibudeyanjiu。


9.3 模具表面

千亿体育cuihuoshiderezhuanhuanshoubujianhemojudejiechutiaojianyingxiang。george dengren(2009)deshuzhimoni,zaixitongmojuderexingweifangmianyanjiulemokuaijiandekongxi。xianshi,butongmokuaiquyudekongqijianxi,zaimashitizhuanbiandelinjinsulvyixiabujiandelengquesulvjianghuijiandi。gaifangfadelieshishi,bujiandeziyouchengxinggenjiechukongxiyouguan,jiechukongxihuijianshaobujiandexingzhuangjingquedu。duibiaomianjinxingjiegouhuashilingyizhongjiandijuburezhuanhuandefangfa。biaomianjiegouhuayouxiaodejianshaolejiechuquyu。biaomianjiegouhuaduirezhuanhuanxishudeyanjiushijuyoukecairechongyajianzhizaogexindeguanzhudian。


9.4 毛坯的回火

千亿体育jiangmaopidebufenquyujiaredaoac3wenduyishang,zheiyanghuoxukehuodemashitizuzhi。zheizhongfangfa,aoshitidewanquanrexunhuankeyiyingyongdaozheixiequyu,erqitaquyubaoliuweiyuanshidetiesuti-zhuguangtizuzhi。ghiotti dengren (2009a,b)zhichushiyongnengbaochibutongwendudeluheshiyongdianzujiarezheiliangzhongfangfa,kansizuiweiheshide。raner,bixukaolvbutongcailiaodeliangzhongquyufenbieshoudaojiagongchengxingdeyingxiang。jiaodiwendudequyudechengxingxinghuijiangdi,tongchang,huichanshenghuidanxianxiang(erhardt and boke, 2008).。stohrdengren(2009)zaibutongdehuihuowenduxiayanjiucailiaoderejixiexingneng,zhichudidehuihuowendukeyishijuyoucaizhixingnengdebujianhuodejiaodideyanzhanxing,xuanzediyu825℃dewendu,laihuodebitongchangrechongyajinshujiangengdideqiangduheyingdu(tu19)。



9.5 修剪焊接工件

千亿体育qichegongyezhongzaishiwenxiacaizhihanjiegongjianhuozhejiagonggongjianshiyixiangchengshudegongyi。yucileisi,caizhirechongyadehanjiejianxuyaogongjianjuyoucaizhixingneng。zheili,rechuligongjianheweirechuligongjiangangjiangjinxingrechongya。yinwei,zaigangderechulishijinxinglemashitizhuanbian,xiangduiyumeijinxingrechulidebujiantadezuizhongqiangduhuizengjia。gongjianshijinxingjiguanghande。zaicizhiqian,hanjiequyudetucengbixuquchu。rechongyazhonghanfenghechengxingdeweizhishoudaoxianzhi,zheishixuyaozaiqitagongyizhongsuoxuyaokaolvde。


10.应用

成形和硬化相结合使得22MnB5钢在汽车行业成为理想的结构,尤其是在需要穿透性保护的机窗或者汽车上。一些汽车的A-柱和B-柱,边缘冲击保护,底梁,车架,保险杆,保险架,加固门柱,车顶框架,管道,后部和前部边缘交叉部分(见图20)。这些板的厚度变化在1.0和2.5mm之间。



11.结论

zongshanglaikan,zuijindegaoqiangdugangderechongyayanjiuchengguoyijinggaikuozaibutongdeyanjiujieguolimianle。conggaikuodediaochaxianshi,rechongyazhongdeyixiexianxianghaicunzaizhishidekongbai。ciwai,yixierechongyadechuangxinxingyanjiuhaiyoudaijianding。

rechongyadeyingyonghehouxugongxu,qujueyuqiegexitongyijibujiandekehanjiexingnenghebiaomianzuzhijiegou。weilebimianzaiaoshitihuaguochengzhongxingchengyanghuapi,daduorechongyajiandoujinxingyutucengchuli。zheiyangchulidemudeshiweilehuodeyibandetucengcailiaolaiduizhijiehuojianjierechongyadeyinjijinxingfujiadebaohu。

千亿体育bujianchongya-yinghuadexunhuanshijianzhuyaoqujueyubimoshijianhetingliuzailuneiaoshitihuadeshijian,yibiantucenghuodeshentoudehejin。guanyubimoshijian,zuiyouhuamodelengquehuozheshiyongkeyijianshaoxunhuanshijiandemojugang。tingliuzailuneideshijianjinjinnengtongguojiaokuaidejiarelaishixian,birurechuandaohuozheganyingjiare。yinci,butongdejiarexitong(rechuandaoheganyingjiare)zaiweilaijuyoujiaodadeqianli。

rechongyashihuodeyudingxiangzhuanbiandere-jixiechengxingfangfa。yinci,xucaiyongjiejinxianshidefemoxinglaimonijixie,re,weiguanzuzhidejiaohuzuoyong。biru,rezhuanhuanxishu,cailiaodeliubianxingwei,hexiangzhuanbiantiaojian。

shiyanshujuyucailiaomoxingdeduibixianshi,zaiaoshitihuatiaojianxiadui22mnb5liubianxingweidemoxingmonishikenengde。chixudeliubianxingweibixukaolvcailiaodere-jixiexingneng,dejiyuxiangbianqianre,tijibianhua,xiangzhuanbianhoumashitidesuxingdengtiaojian。ciwai,zaigaowenxiagangdekeformabilitychengxingxingkeyitongguoshidangdeshixiaozhunzelaihuoqu,birujianliyingbian,yingbiansulv,wendu,hezuzhiyanbiandehanshuguanxi。

千亿体育zaibutongwenduxiaheyingbiansulvxia22mnb5liubianquxian,zheixiegongyicanshuqiangliedeyingxiangcailiaodeliubianxingwei。yixieyanjiubiaoming,zaizuiyouhuaderechongyagongxuzhongrechongyajiangaodechengxingjingdujuyouzuixiaodehuidan。danshi,juyoucaizhixingnengderechongyajiandeziyouqiaoqushoubutongdexiangbianhuagongxudeyingxiang,bingshougongjiandejihexingzhuanghejixiexingneng。

千亿体育xiancundeyanjiugongzuoxiangjinxianshi,shiyongrechongyashengchangaoqiangdugangdejuyouhendadeyingyongqianli。ciwai,xianghuodezuijiadechongyagongyishejiwulixianxiangdejibenzhishishizhiguanzhongyaode。


原文:A review on hot stamping

作者:H. Karbasian , A.E. Tekkaya


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