千亿体育

千亿体育

(40Cr)减速箱高速轴断裂失效分析【案例分析】

千亿体育wogongsiliantiechang1haogaoluyu2014nianmourifashengshangliaozhujuanyangjiansuxianggaosuzhou(40cr)duanlieshigu,daozhigaoluwujihuaxiufeng835min。zaijinxiangfenxidejichushang,yingyongsaomiaodianjing(sem)jiqifujiannengpuyi(eds)lianmeiduiduanzhoujinxingdingxingdingliangfenxihou,zhaochudaozhigaizhoucuixingduanliedekenengyuanyin,duifangzhileisishigudefashengyoujijiyiyi。



失效分析方法


zaiduanzhoushangjieququanduanmianzhichengguangpuyangjinxinghuaxuechengfenheyingdufenxi,genjutuzhiyaoqiudebiaozhunxingnengpanduansuoyongcailiaodefuhexing。


千亿体育duiduanliezhouquanjiemianjinxingqingxi,zaidibeilvxiaguanchaqihongguanxingmao,conghongguanshangzhaochuduanliedesiliewenzouxiang,congerpanduanqiduanliedezuichuqiyuandian;duiduanlieyuanjinxingdianjing、jinxiangdengfenxi,zhaochudaozhiqiduanlieshixiaoyuanyin;duiduanliequanjiemiandeyingduyuxianweizuzhijinxingfenxi,congerduishixiaoyuanyinzuochuzonghefenxi。



材料材质符合性判断


shaogangliantiechang1haogaoluzhujuanyangjijiansuxianggaosuchilunzhoutuyangbiaoshicaizhiwei40crdiaozhichuli,conghuaxuechengfenheyingdujiancejieguokan,cailiaofuheyaoqiu。


1.成分检测

zaiduanzhoushangjieququanduanmianzhichengguangpuyang,suijiqu3gedianfenxi,chengfenshicezhiyubiaozhunchengfenqujianzhifanweiduibiwanquanwenhe,jianbiao1。

表1  化学成分(质量分数)   (%)

yuansu

c

si

mn

p

s

cr

ni

cu

te

biaozhun

xia

0.35

0.20

0.50

≤0.035

0.80

yu

shang

0.45

0.40

0.80

1.10

shice

0.363

0.396

0.378

0.218

0.222

0.223

0.695

0.668

0.671

0.008

0.008

0.010

0.019

0.013

0.014

0.975

0.995

0.988

0.027

0.030

0.029

0.023

0.022

0.024

yu

2.材料调质硬度

gaichilunzhoutuyangyaoqiucailiaodiaozhihouyingdu255~286hbw。zaiduanzhoushangquyangjiance,jieguowei262~276hbw10/3000,fuheyaoqiu。



减速箱高速轴齿断失效分析


1.基体金相组织和硬度分析

shaogangliantiechang1haogaoluzhujuanyangjijiansuxianggaosuchilunzhoucaizhiweidiaozhi40cr,mubiaozuzhiweihuihuosuoshiti。


(1)试样表面基体组织与夹杂物情况

千亿体育zaishiyangkaojinduanmian20mmchuququanjiemianshiyangfenxijitizuzhi,xuanqushiyangbianyuanzuoweijiancedian,jiancejieguo: jinxiangzuzhi(jiantu1、tu2)weihuihuosuoshiti+wangzhuangtiesuti(5.7%);jiazawu(jiantu3)pingjiweia2.5ed0.5ji;yingdujieguowei276hbw10/3000。

图1 边缘组织(100×)         图2边缘组织(500×)               图3 边缘夹杂(100×)


(2)试样径向1/4处的组织与夹杂物情况

zaishiyangkaojinduanmian20mmchuququanjiemianshiyangfenxijitizuzhi,xuanqushiyangjingxiang1/4chuzuoweijiancedian,jiancejieguo: jinxiangzuzhi(jiantu4、tu5)weihuihuosuoshiti+wangzhuangtiesuti(16.2%);jiazawu(jiantu6)pingjiweia3.0ed0.5ji;yingdujieguowei262hbw10/3000。

图4  100×                     图5  500×                       图6  100×

(3)试样心部(径向1/2处)的组织与夹杂物情况

zaishiyangkaojinduanmian20mmchuququanjiemianshiyangfenxijitizuzhi,xuanqushiyangxinbu(jingxiang1/2chu)chuzuoweijiancedian,jiancejieguo: jinxiangzuzhi(jianrutu7、tu8)weihuihuosuoshiti+wangzhuangtiesuti(18.7%);jiazawu(jiantu9)pingjiweia2.5ed0.5ji;yingdujieguowei246hbw10/3000。

图7  100×                   图8  500×                 图9  100×

(4)基体组织与硬度分析

千亿体育congbutongbuweijitizuzhijiancejieguoshuoming: jitizuzhizhongcunzaitiesutiqieqihanliangchengguilvxingbianhua,fanyinglegaizhoudiaozhichulizhongcuihuogongyizhixingzhiliangweidagongyiyaoqiu;jitizhongjiazawujiaoyanzhong,jinyibujiangdilegaizhoudexingneng。①tiesutihanliangcongzhoubiaocengdaoxinbuchengguilvxingbianhua,cong6%shangshengdao19%;eryingducongzhoubiaocengdaoxinbuyechengguilvxingbianhua,cong276hbw10/3000xiajiangdao246hbw10/3000。②shiyanghengjiemianzuzhijiqijunyunxingjiaocha。shiyangzuzhiweihuihuosuoshiti+tiesuti,tiesutijibenchengwangzhuang,zheiyangdezuzhicuixingda,liewenrongyiyanjingjiekuosan。③jiazawujiaoyanzhong,zaizhouhengjiemiande1/4chudadaolezuiyanzhongde3ji。jiazawuzaijiaobianyinglizuoyongxia,yiyoufaliewenchanshengerdaozhizhoushixiao。

2.查找裂纹源

(1)断裂断口宏观分析,找出断裂裂纹源

分析轴断口形貌,从其横截面撕裂方向(见图10)初步判断该轴断口的裂纹源为试样边缘结点处(近表面),该结点为长条椭圆形,裂纹向外扩展,见图11。观察可见,此结点颜色与底部基底颜色不一致,结点颜色较亮白,基底颜色深,带黑红;结点中间有细小裂纹。

图10  断面的断口形貌

图11 计算机处理后的裂纹源示意

(2)dianjingxingmaofenxi,zhaochuliewenyuan

对图11中疑为裂纹源的结点进行电镜扫描,发现该结点与基体呈镶嵌形态,且与基体间有裂纹(见图12),进一步断定该结点为镶入物,就是裂纹源。对该结点做细致观察,确认凹坑处为裂纹源,微观形貌为河流状花纹(见图13、图14),判断该轴为脆性断裂。

图12 、 图13 、 图14  疑似裂纹源

3.确认裂纹源

(1)裂纹源处的组织

shiyangmozhiwanchenghoujingfushifaxian:

①jiedianyuqizhouwei(jiti)zuzhiyansebuyizhi。

千亿体育②jiedianzhouwei(jiti)zuzhiweihuihuosuoshiti+wangzhuangtiesuti,yujitizuzhiyizhi;erjiedianchudezuzhiweidanchunsuoshitizuzhi。

③jitiyujiedianzhijianyouliewen,liewenweiyuzhoubiaomianjiediandibu,jiantu15daotu18。

图15   裂纹两边组织(50×)     图16  裂纹两边组织(50×)

图17   裂纹两边组织(100×)             图18  索氏体(500×)

(2)区域化学成分对比分析

jiedianchudejinxiangzuzhiweihuihuosuoshiti,duiqijinxingdianjingsaomiao,nengpujieguojiantu19。

图19 结点处的能谱图

千亿体育jiedianneicechu(jijiti)jinxiangzuzhiweihuihuosuoshiti+tiesuti,duiqijinxingdianjingsaomiao,nengpujieguojiantu20。

图20  基体的能谱图

(3)区域化学成分对比分析

千亿体育tongguonengpufenxikejian,jiedianchuhuaxuechengfenyujitibutong,jitizhongzhuyaohejinyuansuweicr,erjiedianzhongdezhuyaohejinyuansuweimn,qichengfenduibijianbiao2。jiedianhuaxuechengfenzhongcrhanliangmingxianpiandi,mnhanliangpiangao,mnyuansujujizaochengjiediandecuitouxingbiangao。xiangtongtiaojianxia,jiedianwuzhijiaorongyizhuanbianweimashiti,diaozhihuihuozhuanbianweihuihuosuoshiti,yugaizhoujitidesuoshiti+tiesutizuzhimingxiancunzaichayi。zhuanbianzuzhidebutongzaochengzhuanbianhouzuzhitijidechayi,shijiedianchuchengweiyinglijizhongdian,shiyongguochengzhonggaijiedianshouchongjizaiheerfazhanchengliewen,liewenyanjiediankuozhandaoyidingchengduhoufasan,zuizhongfashengduanlie。


表2  结点与基体区域成分对比表(质量分数)(%)

yuansu

si

cr

mn

te

jiti

0.67

1.15

98.18

jiedian

0.54

0.98

98.48

 


结语

由以上分析可知,以下原因造成了该高速轴的脆性断裂:


1.主要原因

jiagonggaigaosuzhousuoyongdecailiao(40cr)neibuyouzuzhiquexian,jicunzaiyouxiangruwuzhi,xiangruwuzhiyujitidexianweizuzhibutong,qianzheshihuihuosuoshiti,houzheshihuihuosuoshiti+wangzhuangtiesuti,xiangruwuzhiyujitizhijianyouqingxijiexian。gaiquexiandaozhijitixingchengleyinglijizhong,zaishangliaozuoyedechongjizaihezuoyongxiachanshengliewenyuanbingkuozhanzhiduanlie。


2.次要原因

(1)gaizhourechuligongyizhixingzhiliangweidadaogongyiyaoqiu,zaochengcailiaoxianweizuzhicunzaiwangzhuangtiesuti,qieqijingxiangxianweizuzhicongcailiaobiaocengdaoxinbu,wangzhuangtiesutizuzhisuozhanbilicong6%shangshengdao19%,congerdaozhiqiyingducongbiaocengdaoxinbubutong,cong276hbw10/3000shangshengdao246hbw10/3000;cailiaowulixingnengyanjingxiangbianhuatiduguoda,jiangdilecailiaochengshouchongjizaihedenengli。


千亿体育(2)jiazawujiaoyanzhong,zaizhouhengjiemiande1/4chudadaolezuiyanzhongde3ji。jiazawuzaijiaobianyinglizuoyongxia,yiyoufaliewenchanshengerdaozhizhoushixiao。


(3)gaicailiaoquexiandianzhenghaochuyuzhoudeshoulimian,jiadalezhoushiyongguochengzhongfashenglieduandejilv。

作者: 陈雪发,林晏民,刘学文

单位: 宝钢集团广东韶关钢铁有限公司

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